Bowel Pains – Could It Be Aluminum Exposure?

Exposure to aluminum is high (they even use it in water purification plants).  In recent years, IBS and IBD have increased. Now, 2 studies in mice have shown increased visceral  pain sensitization in keeping with usual human exposure of aluminum.

al_IBS

Aluminum has come under increased scrutiny with the finding that aluminum in dorsal root ganglion might cause chemotherapy oxaliplatin induced peripheral neuropathy pain:
Lee, Minji, et al.
Glutathione alleviated peripheral neuropathy in oxaliplatin-treated mice by removing aluminum from dorsal root ganglia.
American journal of translational research 9.3 (2017): 926.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5375987/

Commentary was written here:

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;7(1):235-236.
doi: 10.1016/j.jcmgh.2018.10.005.
Aluminum Meddles With Visceral Pain Perception.
Bretin A et al
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282629/

  • Makes comment “prevalence of both IBS and IBD have shown marked increases in  incidence, roughly paralleling the modernization of society that accelerated in the mid-20th century, raising the possibility that environmental factors associated with human activity may be a driver of both diseases.”
  • make comment that “aluminum levels are difficult to measure in individuals”
  • speculates that maybe rodents might be more sensitive –  but who knows?

 

Sites 2 articles:
De Chambrun, G. Pineton, et al.
Aluminum enhances inflammation and decreases mucosal healing in experimental colitis in mice.
Mucosal immunology 7.3 (2014): 589.
https://www.nature.com/articles/mi201378

Aluminum worsens colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and dextran sodium sulfate in mice.

Main article it refers to:

N. Esquerre, L. Basso, C. Dubuquoy, M. Djouina, D. Chappard, C. Blanpied, P. Desreumaux, N. Vergnolle, C. Vignal, M. Body-Malapel
[Aluminum ingestion promotes colorectal hypersensitivity in rodents]
Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol, 7 (2019), pp. 185-196
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352345X18301346

  • Irritable bowel occurs in 10–25% of the population with twice as many women as men in Western countries
  • 50% of patients report having had symptoms before 35 years of age with no known cause.
  • No biomarkers of disease so  diagnosis is clinical
  • Increase intestinal permeability is seen
  • abnormal activation status of immune cells, particularly mast cells or T cells is seen
  • psychological factors, and preceding gastrointestinal infections associated.
  • oligosaccharide, disaccharides, monosaccharide, polyol, gluten, and nickel sensitivity are related and various diets might help.
  • estimated that most Americans ingest from 0.01 to 1.4 mg/kg body weight/d of aluminum which means more than more than 95 mg/d aluminum = meaning 1.58 mg·kg·d

So in their study the gave mice 1.5 mg/kg aluminum/day – results on day Four:

aluminum

In the females, gut hypersensitivity has doubled…

There are a couple of IBS inducers in mice – repeated butyrate enemas and intrarectal injection of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid in combination with 25–50% ethanol. They found Aluminum induced near similar levels of sensitization:

dug inducedIBS

A good study will show a dose-response effect – ie. –  more of it, more effect. This was seen:

aluminum dosage

  • The hypersensitivy induced by aluminum persisted during exposure “this aluminum-induced nociceptive effect was maintained for the duration of administration. After 30 days of exposure, it led to a 30% increase in pain compared with control animal.”
  • Withdrawal of aluminum did revert rats to normal over a period of a month though human ingesting it for years may not be as lucky: ” Increased pain induced by 1.5 mg/kg/d persisted significantly for 7 days after discontinuation of treatment, and 4 weeks were needed to reach the threshold of nontreated rats.”
  • those subjected to previous aluminum exposure, developed hypersensitivity much faster with a second challenge:  “second administration of AlCi at the same dose of 1.5 mg/kg/d induced pain within 2 days of administration compared with 8 days during the first administration “
  • To rule out effect of citrate on IBS, rats were given comparable doses of zinc citrate instead of aluminum citrate – zinc citrate did not induce any hypersensitivity.
  • They were able to demonstrate “aluminum induced mast cell degranulation and activation of the proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) which were required for aluminum-induced visceral pain”

Comment OMG – could it be that simple in some cases? I will write more but felt this needed to be got out there ASAP.

 

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